Thomas Edison Biography

About the Inventor and Businessman of America – Thomas Elva Edison

Born on 11th February, 1847 in Milan located in Ohio Thomas Elva Edison is known for developing a number of devices that includes a motion picture camera, light bulb and also the phonograph. He was given the title of “The Wizard of Menlo Park” by a reporter of a newspaper. Thomas was one of the first inventors to apply the principle of mass production and this is the reason why he is given the credits for establishing the first ever industrial research laboratory. He is one of the four most prolific inventors in history and greatly contributed to the telecommunications sector. He was the man who discovered the concept and its implementation of the electric-power which could be distributed to business centers, homes and also factories.

Quick Facts:

  • Nick name: The Wizard of Menlo Park
  • Date of birth: 11th February, 1847
  • Place of birth: Milan, Ohio
  • Origin: Ohio
  • Profession: Inventor
  • Known for: His inventions of the electric bulb, motion picture camera
  • Website:

Childhood and growing up years:

Thomas Edison was born on 11th February in the year of 1847 in Milan located in Ohio and was then shifted to Port Huron, the place where he grew up. Thomas was the last and seventh child of the blessed couple Ogden Edison and Nancy Matthews Elliott. However, Edison always considered himself to be a Dutch ancestry because his father had escaped to Canada to be a part of the unsuccessful Mackenzie Rebellion. During his school education, Thomas was a brilliant child who excellent in studies but his mind was always wandering and he ended his schooling in three months. It was Edison’s mother who played a significant role in shaping the adolescent mind and he recalls saying that he was so true about his upbringing. Once, he left school, Thomas was home schooling from his mother and majority of his reading was from the b0oks of R.G Parker’s “School of Natural Philosophy” and also “The Cooper union”. At a very young age, Thomas Edison developed hearing problems and the cause was said to be because of the scarlet fever which he had attributed in his childhood days combined with continuous middle-ear infections. In the year of 1854 when the railroad bypassed Milan, Thomas Edison’s parents forced him to relocate to Port Huron where his life turned bitter sweet. In this new city he lived by selling newspapers and candy on moving trains that ran from Port Huron to Detroit. Apart from this he also sold veggies from where he acquired supplemented income. While working on one hand, Thomas also studied the subject of qualitative analysis in which he conducted chemical experiments on the trains and stopped it until he met with an accident that was caused by the prohibition of further kind of work. During the same time, he obtained special rights through which he could sell newspapers on the road and also received assistance from four other people. This job then helped him to set into the industry of type where he started printing the Grand Trunk Herald which was sols along with other newspapers. This profession began the actual successful streak of the entrepreneurial venture in his life as Thomas discovered his talents as being a successful businessman. This skill and talent later on helped him to find 14 companies which included General Electric which still remains as one of the largest publicly trading companies all over the world.

Later on, Edison joined as a telegrapher, the job that he got when he saved the life of a 3-year old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a running train. In return for this act of Thomas, Jimmie’s father who was a station agent was grateful and trained Edison to become a telegrapher operator. The first job of Edison as a telegrapher was far away from Port Huron in Stratford Junction. In the year of 1866, when Tomas Edison was nineteen years old Thomas requested for a night shift in his job so that he would have some time to spend on his favourite pastimes that comprises of experimenting and reading. Gradually, in the future, hobby of experimenting proved very useful as he found a stable job. One night in the year of 1867 while he was working with lead-acid battery, the chemical spilled sulfuric acid which fell on the floor and this fluid ran between the floorboards and also onto the desk of the boss. For this act of Thomas Edison he was terminated from the job and Edison had to hunt for another job to survive his life. An important mentor in his life during the early years of Thomas Edison was his fellow inventor and telegrapher Franklin Leonard Pope and it was he who allowed this unskilled youth to live his life while allowing him to work in his basement which was known as Elizabeth situated in his New Jersey house. One of the earliest inventions of Edison was related to telegraphy and this included a stock ticker. He first acquired patent rights for his electric vote recorder which was granted to him in the year of 1869 on June 1st. Two year later in the year of 1871 on 25th December, Tomas Edison was married to Mary-Stilwell who was 16 years old. He had met this lady just two months ago when she worked as an employer in one of his shops. The couple had three children. Sadly, in the year 1884 on August 9th Mary Edison died most possibly by a brain tumor or morphine overdose and in the year of 1886 on February 24th when Edison was thirty nine years old he got into a second marriage with a twenty-year old Mile Miller who was the daughter of the great inventor Lewis Miller. With her, he had three children.

Claim to fame:

Edison had begun his career as being an inventor in the city of Newark located in New Jersey when he first invented the automatic repeater. Besides this, he also worked on improving the telegraphic devices. Although he worked hard and invented these devices, it was way later in the year of 1877 when he first gained notice with his invention of the phonograph. The invention of a phonograph was so unexpected by people and it appeared as a magical device to many. With the invention of the phonograph, Thomas Edison came to be known as “The Wizard of Menlo Park” in the state of New Jersey. The first phonograph was recorded on a tinfoil which was around a grooved cylinder. But this had poor sound quality and also the recordings captured by this phonograph could be played on a few times. In 1880’s, he redesigned the model by making use of wax that was coated on the cardboards which was attached to the cylinders. This produced sound similar to the device produced by Graham Bell, Charles Tainter and also Chichester Bell. He worked hard on his phonograph until he acquired his own Perfect Phonograph.

Thomas Edison’s major revolution and innovation that brought him success came when he built the first industrial research lab which was situated in the Menlo Park of New Jersey. This lab was built after collecting funds from the sale exhibition that was conducted by Edison’s quadruplex telegraph. He was surprised when his creation got an offer of $10,000 and with grace he had accepted this offer. This quadruplex telegraph proved to be the greatest financial success for Edison and also Menlo Park was the first institution which was set up with a focused purpose. The aim of this Park was to have continuous long-term technological innovations and developments. The inventions that were made here by Edison were legally attributed and for this purpose he hired a number of employees who helped him out in carrying out research and improvements while working under the supervision of Thomas Edison. The staff would commonly work out in the research stage and these results would prove to be the driving force for Edison to carry forward the experiment for his inventions. In the year of 1879 on December, William Joseph Hammer who was a consultant in electrical engineering, started working in the laboratory by assisting Thomas Edison. He played an important role as he assisted Edison in his experiments that he made on phonograph, telephone, electric lighting, electric railway and many other inventions. Hammer’s duties were limited to work on the electric lamp and he was in-charge of testing and recording devices. Later in the year of 1880, he was promoted as a chief engineer to the Edison Lamp Works. Mostly all of Edison’s patents that he had acquired were utility patents and they were protected for seventeen long years. These patents were for his inventions that he had made on mechanical, chemical or electrical materials. In most of Thomas patents, the inventions elaborate on the improvements by focusing on prior art. Indeed, it was not Edison who invented the first electrical bulb but instead he was the first person to invent the practical commercially incandescent light. His invention was a major success because in the year 1878 Edison used the term filament to glowing wire which carries the current. During the same period, Swan developed a similar light which could withstand long lasting filament but his bulbs lacked high resistance which is required to keep the electric bulb everlasting. Although, his bulb was not as a successful invention when compared to Edison’s, Swan could obtain patent rights for his works in Britain which proved to be incomplete because it was not fully prepared and consequently it failed. Unable to cope with the capital which is required for the patent, he turned to Edison and with this Thomas Edison was forced get into a partnership venture with Swan for the working of an electric bulb. However, later on Swan acknowledged that Edison was entitled to attain the fame required for this invention and working with Edison had given him the chance to see the subject in-depth. By the year of 1879, Thomas Edison had produced another new concept which read as being a high resistant lamp in high vacuum and this would have the ability to burn for more hundreds of hours. Earlier inventors had produced light in laboratory conditions and Thomas Edison now concentrated on the commercial application of this electric bulb. This invention of Edison had seen success as it was largely been sold for businesses and home purposes as it could withstand mass-production with relatively long-lasting distribution of electricity. After a decade, the Menlo Park which was established by Edison ten years ago was now expanding as it now occupied two blocks of the city. These labs had the stock of every possible conceivable material required. With this he had created the first industrial laboratory which was concerned with producing knowledge and also controlling the application of this knowledge.

In the year of 1877 and 1878, Thomas Edison is given the credits for his invention and development of the carbon microphone which is used in every telephone. This device was also used in the Bell receiver till the year of 1980’s. This invention of Thomas had seen a patent litigation and in the year 1892 the federal court had ruled out the Edison had indeed invented the carbon microphone and it was not Emile Berliner. This device was also used in public address sessions and also radio broadcasting till the year of 1920’s.

Adding on the contributions of the previous developments, after three quarters of a century, Thomas Edison made developments to the idea of incandescent light and with this idea he entered into public minds as “the inventor” that he made to the contributions of inventing the light bulb which was a prime improvement in the development of all infrastructure which is required for electric power. After conducting a number of experiments with the precious metal platinum and various other filaments but towards the end Edison returned back to carrying out his experiments with carbon filament. Finally in the year of 1879 he as successful in his test and this test lasted for about forty hours. He further continued to work on this design and by the year of 1879 on November 4th, Edison filed for a United States patent rights for his invention of the electric bulb. After several months of acquiring patents for his inventions, Thomas Edison along with his team discovered another carbonized bamboo filament which could stay for 1,200 hours. The idea of using this filament had originally struck Edison was examining a few threads of a bamboo fishing pole when he was relaxing at the shore of the Battle Lake which is located in the state of Wyoming, the place where he and his friends where travelling to observe the eclipse in the year of 1878 from the place of Continental Divide. In the year of 1878, Thomas Edison established the Edison Electric Light Company in the state of New York with the help of several financiers which also included J. P. Morgan and also the members of the Vanderbilt family. He came out in public and made his first public demonstration of his electric bulb in the year of 1879 on 31st December in Menlo Park. In the further days, Lewis Latimer joined hands with the company established by Thomas Edison in the year of 1884.

In the year of 1880, Thomas Edison opted for a patented system for his invention of the electricity distribution which is the essential element to capitalize for the invention of the electric lamp. In the same year on 17th December, Edison founded the Edison Illuminating Company. This was first company which was established by an inventor in Pearl Street Station in the state of New York. In 1882, September 4th Edison shifted from working on the Pearl Street where he was generating and distributing power system at 110 volts to Manhattan. AT the beginning of the same year in the month of January, he had switched from the first steam generation power to Holborn Viaduct which is situated in London. This power supply was used to provide electric supply to a number of private houses which were located within the short distance from the station and also to street lamps.

However, it was only during the war of currents that Thomas Edison had achieved his true success similar to the efforts of his friend Henry Ford who has the ability to maximize his profits by setting up mass-systems by acquiring intellectual property rights.  Thomas and George Westinghouse had become adversaries by now because of the efforts that Thomas had performed to promote direct current instead of the alternating current which was invented by Nikola Tesla. By the year of 1887, Thomas Edison set up 121 power stations alone in the United States which could deliver direct electricity to a number of customers. However, when limitations of the direct current were discussed among the public, Thomas Edison launched a campaign which could convince people to realize the hazards of alternative current. It was this war that pushed Thomas Edison to be involved with promotion and developments of the electric chair which could portray that direct current had a greater potential than alternative current. As part of the efforts of this campaign, his employees openly electrocuted animals so that they could demonstrate the dangers effects of alternative current.

Apart from the above inventions and developments, Thomas Edison is also credited for producing and designing the first ever fluoroscope which could be commercially available. The fluoroscope was a machine which makes use of X-Rays that will help to perform radiographs. Edison made use of calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens in order to produce higher and brighter images. The fundamental design which is created by Thomas Edison is still used in the modern technological world, although he had abandoned himself from the project.


Thomas Edison played an active role in the developments of business activities at every end and just before his death in the year 1931, the Lackawanna Railroad had implemented the design of electric trains which would run in the suburban regions from Hoboken to Gladstone. With this we can understand that, Thomas Edison was an influential man and he died of certain diabetes complications in the year of 1931 on October 18th in his home in Glenmont which is situated in West Orange in New Jersey. He had purchased this house in the year 1886 as a gift for marrying Mina and his body lies in peace just behind his house. It is reportedly said that the last breath of Thomas Edison is contained in a test tube which is preserved at the Henry Ford Museum. This has been acquired as Charles Edison had convinced Ford to seal a test tube of the air just shortly after the death of the great inventor. His wife had a longer life to live as he died in the year of 1947.

All in all, the final key to Thomas Edison’s fortunes is the invention of his telegraphy that he had made with the knowledge that he had obtained by working as a telegraph operator through which he learnt the basics of electricity. This knowledge had allowed him to make his fortune by creating a stock ticker which was the first electricity based broadcast system. In the year of 1878, he got his sound recording and phonograph patented and at the same time he was also granted with patent rights for his invention of the motion picture camera which is known as “Kinetograph” for which he completed the electromechanical designing and his employee Dickson, who was a photographer had worked on the optical development of the camera. The year of 1891, the kinetoscope also known as peep-hole viewer was fully done and it was used in penny arcades. This helped people to watch short films.

To pay tribute to Thomas Edison, a number of places have been named after this great personality and one of the most notable places is Edison Town which is located in New Jersey. There is also a Thomas Edison State College which is a national college for adult learners situated in Trenton in New Jersey. Part from this there are also two other community colleges that are named after him one in Fort Myers and the other in Florida.

Awards and Nominations Received:

In the year of 1881, the President, Jules Grevy of the Third French Republic from the recommendation of the Minister of Foreign Affairs along with the representatives of the Minister of Posts and Telegraphs had designated Thomas Edison with the distinction of “Officer of the Legion of Honour” on November 10th.

In the year of 1187, Thomas Edison was awarded with the Matteucci Medal and in the following year he was given the John Scott Medal. In the year of 1889, Edison won the Edward Longstreth Medal which was given by The Franklin Institute. Also, in the year of 1915, Edison was given the award of Franklin Medal by The Franklin Institute for the contributions that he had made to the development of industries and also the welfare of human-race.

Personal Quotes:

“Being busy does not always mean real work. The object of all work is production or accomplishment and to either of these ends there must be forethought, system, planning, intelligence, and honest purpose, as well as perspiration. Seeming to do is not doing.”

“I know this world is ruled by infinite intelligence. Everything that surrounds us- everything that exists – proves that there are infinite laws behind it. There can be no denying this fact. It is mathematical in its precision.”

“His genius he was quite content in one brief sentence to define; of inspiration one percent, of perspiration, ninety nine”.

“It is astonishing what an effort it seems to be for many people to put their brains definitely and systematically to work.”

Bin Laden Biography

Usama Bin Laden better known as Osama Bin Laden was a Saudi Arab born on March 10th, 1957. The Saudi Arab millionaire original name is Usama bin Mohamed bin Awad bin Laden. Bin Laden became famous after ordering and financing several terrorist attacks against U.S. targets in different places around the world. Bin Laden is also know for being the leader and founder of an extremist Islamic group known as Al Qaeda. This extremist organization allege reason for committing terrorist attacks, as they say, is because of the hundreds if not thousands of deaths of innocent Islamic people as well as for abuses perpetrated by the U.S. against Islam and Islamic nations, resulting in Jihad, “holly war”.

Bin Laden as a member of an extremely wealthy family, had sufficient funding to sponsor this allege “terrorist organization”. Before forming Al Qaeda, Bin Laden fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan when the Soviet Union tried to invade the Islamic nation. When Bin Laden learned about the Afghan invasion by the Soviets he quickly took place in the resistance. During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Bin Laden received money from the U.S. as his family had and still has good relations with important people in the U.S. as Bin Laden’s family conducts business in the U.S. Some of the most notorious relation that the Bin Laden family has is with the Bush family, nevertheless this was kept kind of secret as in the early 21st century, Bin Laden was blamed with the World Trade Center attacks in New York City.

After these “terrorist attacks” took place plus others attack in the 90’s, Bin Laden became the most wanted fugitive in the entire world as the FBI listed him as one of the 10 Most Wanted persons. A global hunt began for Bin Laden’s “head” together with a U.S. military mobilization that is known as “The War on Terror”, name given by the Bush Administration. For several years Bin Laden was nowhere to be found, there were several unsuccessful attempts to capture him in Afghanistan where U.S. intelligence thought he was hiding. The U.S. Air Force bombarded several places in Afghanistan in which was believed Bin Laden was hiding. Contrary to achieving their goal of killing the Saudi Arab, in numerous occasions these bombings only killed innocent civilians whose only mistake was being at the wrong place at the wrong time. Despite numerous attempts from the U.S. to capture Bin Laden “death or alive”, he managed to escape every time, until this year (2011), when special U.S. forces suspiciously, after several years with no luck whatsoever and a year before presidential elections, managed to kill Bin Laden in a private residential area in Pakistan.

Coincidentally current U.S. president, a year before presidential elections, ordered an operation that killed Bin Laden in pretty much less than a year, a task that wasn’t achieved in almost 10 years. What a coincidence right, simply the best political strategy to get reelected, I mean no one would know for sure that Bin Laden was actually killed. Who is not going to believe what the news said, simply get a death body that looks like Bin Laden, order the news channel to pass the latest news about Bin Laden being killed and “Voila”, you get reelected as president of the U.S. Who cares if he is still alive, as long as the people believe he is not, that is more than enough.

Quick Facts

Nick name: Usama Bin Muhammad Bin Ladin, Shaykh Usama Bin Ladin, “The Prince”, “The Emir”, Abu Abdallah, Mujahid Shaykh, “Hajj”, “The Director”

Born:  March 10th, 1957.

Place of birth:  Rihadh, Saudi Arabia

Died: May 2nd, 2011, in Abbotabad, Pakistan.

Profession:  “Terrorist”, Business Man, Gorilla Fighter, Islamic leader

Origin: Saudi Arab

Known for: “Intellectually perpetrating” the infamous terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001, or better said being the most convenient person to blame for the biggest insight job in history. It is extremely hard to believe that the nation that has the biggest military budget wasn’t able to shot down and aircraft that was about to crashed into the twin towers. Coincidentally that exact day everyone became literally “retarded” which created a confusion that enabled the U.S. Air Force to dispatch the necessary aircrafts to eliminate the airplanes that crashed into the twin towers and “the Pentagon” (of course no aircraft remains were found in the Pentagon, simply because it wasn’t an airplane what caused the damages) .former leader and founder of Al Qaeda.

Childhood and growing years

 Usama Bin Mohammed Bin Awad Bin Laden was born in Riyadh in a really wealthy family, whose fortune was achieved by having a very successful construction company owned by Bin Laden’s father, Mohammed Bin Awad Bin Laden. As is very common in Arab countries, Bin Laden’s father had several wives as well as several children. Bin Laden was born from Mohammed Bin Awad Bin Laden’s 10th wife and as part of a huge family, Bin Laden was the 7th child of a total of 50. His mother was Hamida al Atlas of Syrian origin and one of Bin Laden’s father multiple wives.

Bin Laden as a member of a rich family whose fortune ascended to billions of dollars, eventually inherited approximately 30 million dollars. As a child he was introduced to the Muslim faith by his parents, however his education took place in one of the most prestigious secular schools. Bin Laden attended university where he obtained a degree in Civil Engineering or perhaps a different degree. By 1981 he graduated having also some knowledge in economics and business administration. There are some accounts that describe Bin Laden as a hard working individual, and that he didn’t get a degree because he dropped out from university to take care of other more important things for him. Information gathered from Bin Laden revealed that he enjoyed reading, writing poetry and playing football soccer.

Still on his teens (17), Bin Laden married a Syrian Woman name Najwa Ghanem. This married lasted until months before 9/11. As a traditional Muslim he had more than one wife, in fact, he had a total of 5 wives resulting in more than 20 children. When he was only 10 years old his father died in an airplane accident, by age 31, one of his half older brothers in the U.S. also in an airplane accident.

 Decisive years
As a child Bin Laden was part of a religious Islamic group whose perspective about the Koran were a bit extreme. During this time, young Bin Laden as very enthusiastic religious individual received the first violent ideas about Islam and about the holly war, Jihad. When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in the late 70’s, Osama felt that it was his obligation as a Muslim to fight against the oppressor which dared to attack a Muslim nation. While in Afghan soil, he utilized weapons and money provided by the U.S. (which supported Osama’s military actions against the communist Soviet Union) to train Mujahaideen (holly war soldiers) and. During the conflict between the Soviets and Afghanistan, the U.S. government saw Osama as a very charismatic Islamic leader and referred to him and his supporters as “oppressor fighters”. When the Soviets desisted from occupying Afghanistan due to the fierce Afghani resistance, Osama went back to Saudi Arabia and he was welcomed as a hero.

Soon after coming back to his country, Osama became extremely aggravated with the Saudi Arabian government for allowing U.S. troops to occupy the Arab nation at the time of the first conflict against Saddam Hussein. This situation made Osama publicly criticized the Saudi Arabian government, which he thought was corrupted. Consequently after the Saudi government failed to change Osama’s perspective about the U.S. troops occupying the Arab nation, he was forced to leave the country.

While in exile, Osama created a group that he named Al Qaeda, referring to the Arab word for “the base”. Osama carefully selected the members for his group, being the large majority individuals acquainted during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Al Qaeda members had a very specific profile that focus on, good manners, listening skills, loyalty etc. This group’s main purpose was to conduct a holly war as the result of extremist Islamic believes. When the group was ready for “Jihad”, a series of terrorist attacks around the world were planned. A little after a year when Osama began forming his “small army of terrorist”, Saudi Arabian authorities condemned Bin Laden’s actions by confiscating his passport and removing his Saudi Arabian citizenship. It is said that Osama’s own family that were totally against his actions, punished him by removing Osama’s yearly allowance of 7 million dollars.

Giving little or no importance to these measures taken by his nation and his own family, Osama continued with his terrorist plans. Osama’s main objective with the terrorist acts he ordered against the U.S. was to draw the Americans into war. A war that Osama thought would some how unite all Muslims, thus creating a single Islamic nation. During the 90’s, Al Qaeda conducted several infamous acts that include, bombings against U.S. troops station in Saudi Arabia, killing American tourists in Egypt, and bombings in several U.S. embassies in different African nations.

These terrorist attacks that cause the death of hundreds of people, were noticed by Osama’s country of exile, Sudan. Consequently Bin Laden got kicked out of Sudan and unable to return to his home country he decided to take refuge in the country where in prior years he had fought the Soviets, Afghanistan. The Afghan government (in charge of the Taliban) welcomed Osama and offered him their unconditional protection. Soon after he arrived to Afghanistan, Bin Laden convened the Afghani people to a “holly war”, a Jihad against the U.S. a nation that was stealing the precious natural resources (oil) from Muslim nations together with other accusations.

Osama Bin Laden alleged terrorist attacks on 9/11

As the majority of the people believe the terrible events that took place in New York City on September 11, 2001, were perpetrated by Al Qaeda mastermind and funded by Bin Laden. It is really easy to have this opinion after we all saw the news and after the U.S. president told us plenty of times in national television that indeed Osama Bin Laden was behind this terrorist attacks. In the other hand after a through examination only on the events that took place that unforgettable day, it is easy to determine that it is almost impossible that a person living thousands of miles away from the U.S. have successfully planned this terrorist attack without even being noticed. The U.S. is the nation that spends the most money on surveillance equipment than any other nation in the planet. Its armed forces are among one of the most powerful in the world. Knowing this, is it possible that a person having extremely lower economical resources to successfully achieve a terrorist attack in the most powerful nation in the world? “Not even in a thousand years”.

As footages reveal, by the time the twin towers began to crumble it is clearly visible that right below the area in which the buildings were crumbling down, there are some kind of explosive devices that are exploding in a clear sequence allowing the twin towers to fall down in millions of peaces. Engineers agreed that the twin towers were built in such way that an impact of an airplane as the ones that collided on that day, would not caused sufficient damaged that could bring the towers down as they did. Even the president’s reaction when he was informed about the events, was totally absurd. After such events, the head of a nation would definitely have a total different reaction, I mean, your country just got attacked with airplanes and you just simply stay still, isn’t it this very suspicious?

The pentagon “allegedly” also suffered an airplane collision, but where are the airplane remains, why footage from that day doesn’t show an airplane crashing into it, simply because a plane didn’t cause the Pentagon damages, it was a bomb, set by Al Qaeda?, of course not. The Pentagon is probably one of the most secure places on earth.

There is a lot of evidence that clearly shows that this infamous attack wasn’t conducted by Al Qaeda, but by someone else. You decide, who can possibly have achieved such terrorist plot? Let me help you out a little, the government itself.

 As we all saw on the news after almost 10 years of trying to kill the most wanted fugitive in the world, in May 2011, Osama Bin Laden was killed by U.S. Special Forces in Pakistan. This bin laden biography tells a story about a person whose actions caused the death and suffering of innocent people, nevertheless, it is almost impossible that this person’s organization could be responsible of such plans that took place in the most powerful nation in on earth. Whether you want to believe or not, the facts don’t lie, but ignoring the truth is unacceptable.

Dalai Lama Biography

The Dalai Lama as a holly reincarnation currently is in the 14th reincarnation from the first time his holiness was born in 1391, when he was discovered to be the reincarnated Lama Lhamo adopted the name “Tenzin Gyatso”. The current Dalai Lama official name is Lhamo Thondup, born on July 6th 1935, in a tiny village name Takster relatively close from Tibet. The name of the current Dalai Lama means, “wish fulfilling godess”. Lhamo was born in a poor family, whose resources were extremely limited due to the harsh weather conditions in the village, Takster (roaring tiger). This tiny village struggle to produce enough food as the dalail lama mentions in his autobiography, “there were 20 families living in Takster at the time, all of them including my own family, constantly struggle to produced enough food resulting in a very precarious life”.

The word Dalai Lama is formed by the word “Dalai” that comes from the Mongolian language that refers to the Ocean and the word in Tibetan language “Lama” spelled “Bla ma” (the letter “b” is not pronounced) referring to “master” or “teacher”. The word Lama can be associated with the word, Guru. Religiously it is believed that the sole purpose of the Dalai Lama’s reincarnations is to serve others or to “enlighten”, referring to the teachings conducted by the Dalai Lama.

Ever since the 5th Dalai Lama reincarnation took place, besides being a spiritual guide, his holiness also took political responsibilities in the famous Chinese town of Tibet. In the following reincarnations, sometimes the Lamas were responsible for the region’s government. His holiness was also responsible of the Tibetan government before exile, but as his health deteriorate due to advance age, he resigned in 2011. His holiness has predicted that after his death, he will reincarnate somewhere outside Tibet in a female body for the first time in hundreds of years. The Chinese government stupid response about this prediction is that as the higher authority in China they are the only ones authorized to appoint the next Lama, even though China is a nation that does not accept religious believes.

 Quick Facts

 Nick name: “His Holiness”, Tenzin Gyatso

Born: July 6th 1935

Place of birth:  Takster, province of Amdo, China. A tiny village north east of Tibet

Died: the current Dalai Lama hasn’t physically died, nonetheless the first Dalai Lama born in the late 14 century physically died in 1474 but has reincarnated fourteen times so far

Profession:  spiritual guide, Philosopher, public figure, sort of politician

Origin:  Chinese Tibetan

Known for: Promoting human values, predicating harmony among all religions, respecting all living creatures, being the spoke person of the Tibetan population, promoting culture and education, promoting peace, inspiring millions of people, protecting human rights etc, etc


 Childhood, growing years and family

 Lhamo’s parents were farmers who mostly cultivated some grains and potatoes. Lhamo remembers his dad as temper fellow; nevertheless he was very kind and never remained angry for long periods of time. His mother was as he said, “one of the kindest person I’ve ever known”. Lhamo’s mother had 16 children including him, unfortunately only 7 survived. As part of a big family, Lhamo had 4 brothers and only 2 sisters. Tsering Dolma, Lhamo’s older sibling, helped her own mother giving birth to Lhamo. Surprisingly 2 of Lama’s brothers were also recognized as the reincarnation of other important Lamas, something that had no precedents.

As a child the Lama remembers having an ordinary life, having memories of playing with other kids and picking up eggs together with his mom, as he said, one of the things that enjoyed the most when little. Another thing that he remembers that signal his predestination to a prominent future, was the fact that he felt that he was always preparing for a long trip. He recalls. “I constantly insisted that I wanted to visit Lhasa” and “I always wanted to sit at the most important place of the table, the head”.

The current Lama is no less than the reincarnation of all previous 13 Lamas who lived in Tibet. These reincarnations are considered to be Avalokiteshvara, Chenrezig or Bodhisattva. The last one is known as, “The one who holds the white lotus”. His holiness has been asked several times about his opinion regarding this lineage, responding, “Throughout my life’s experiences and considering my religious believes, I have no problem whatsoever to realize that in some way I’m linked in one way or another to all previous Lama’s reincarnations, Chenrezig and Buddha himself”.

 Decisive years
Traditionally, after the last Lama passes away, a group of people sent by Tibetan authorities embark on a quest to look for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. In the case of the 14th reincarnation, there were some clues that point out the location of the reincarnated Lama to be in or near Kumbum Monastery in Tibet. Tibetan authorities were directed to this exact place as the 13th reincarnation, Thupten Gyatso’s head turned from facing south towards the northeast. Also there was a vision by a Senior Lama that pointed to the location of the reincarnation to be somewhere near Lhamo Lhatso, “the sacred lake”. Also in this vision the senior Lama saw the Tibetan letters, Ah, Ka, Ma. These Tibetan letters referred to Amdo, exactly where the Tibetan authorities sent the searching group (Ah), Kumbum (Ka).

By the time the searching group reached Lhamo’s house they knew that they had reached the right place, but instead of introducing themselves as the searching group appointed to discovered the 14th Lama reincarnation they simply requested to spend the night as guests. The searching group leader acted as a servant and focused his attention on the youngest children in the family. Right away, as young Lhamo saw Kewtsang (the leader of the searching group), he recognized him and mentioned the name, “Sera Lama”, the searching group leader’s monastery. The following day, the searching group left only to comeback with several belongings from the prior Lama as well as other things that did not belonged to him. Every time when young Lhamo was presented with items belonging to the prior Lama he instantly replied, “mine, mine”, somehow convincing the searching group and young Lhamo was acknowledge as the 14th reincarnation of the Dalai Lama.

After the discovery Lhamo was taken to Kumbum monastery where he began a moment in his life which wasn’t the happiest. Even though that the young boy wasn’t really happy, when he arrived to the monastery he realized that his older brother was at the monastery already and his mentor or guide was a very lovely monk who regularly wrapped young Lhamo with his gown. As time went by Lhamo reunite with his parents before beginning a journey to the Tibetan capital, Lhasa. Despite some difficulties, in mid 1939, the young boy with his parents and a large caravan began the journey. His holiness remembers in this long journey (that took 3 months), that everything fascinated him, “there were herds of wild animals everywhere, wild yaks, wild donkeys, small deer, and geese”. When the caravan arrived in the Tibetan capital, the entire party was warmly welcomed. The following day a ceremony took place in which the young boy Lhamo officially became the 14th Dalai Lama.

By the end of the 1940’s, a ceremony took place in which young Lhamo adopted the traditional monk’s attire and his hair was totally shaved from his head. Also in this ceremony the young boy surrendered his name given by his parents (Lhamo Thondup) to adopt the name of the 14th Lama reincarnation, “Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso”. After the official designation as Lama, the young boy began his academic formation that included: doctorate in Buddhist studies, (Tibetan) art and culture, medicine and the hardest and most important of them all, “Buddhist Philosophy”.

 Life as the 14th Reincarnated Dalai Lama

At age 15 after the communist regime in china threatened to invade the Tibetan capital, his holiness officially became the sub sequential Tibetan leader. A couple of months before the end of the 50’s, his holiness had a conversation with his older brother who had just arrived to the Tibetan capital. As soon as the Lama saw his brother he knew that something terrible had happened. The Lama’s older brother face with sorrow was the result of the occupation of their hometown by the Chinese troops. The situation against the Chinese worsened and Tibet was on the brink of war against the communist government. 2 newly elected prime ministers by the Dalai Lama were sent to other nations (the U.S., the UK and Nepal) to seek help for their independent nation. Meanwhile his holiness moved towards southern china in case the situation got even worse; he would have the opportunity to escape to a neighbor country.

When his holiness learned that neither of the nations which he asked for help refused to support Tibet, he now knew that the Tibet would have to face its problems alone. In total frustration of these nations unwillingness to help Tibet, the Dalai Lama tried once again to negotiate with the Chinese not to invade Tibet. These peace negotiations terribly failed and the party sent to Beijing to negotiate Tibetan independence was forced at gun point to sign an agreement drafted by the Chinese. These document in which the Chinese authorities forged the Tibetan seal, set the Tibetan acceptance of being part of the People’s Republic of China.

In the following years, the Dalai Lama kept trying to persuade the Chinese government to change their mind about Tibet. Despite the fact that his holiness himself talked to the communist leader Mao Zadong and other important figures, peace talks were unsuccessful and while his holiness was in India for some religious celebrations, terrible news about brutal acts committed by the Chinese against the Tibetan people reached the ears of the Tibetan leader.

After a suspicious invitation made by a Chinese general to the Dalai Lama to attend a show, the Tibetan people felt extremely anxious that this was an attempt by the Chinese to capture his holiness. This thoughts were confirmed when the Tibetan leader consulted the Nechung Oracle. Soon after, dressed as a soldier, his holiness managed to escape. Several weeks after the Dalai Lama escaped together with his family members, Indian soldier welcomed his holiness and as it has been already agreed, the Indian government offered asylum to the Tibetan leader as well as his companions. Some time after the Tibetan leader arrived in India, he met with the nation’s prime minister to discuss the situation of thousands of Tibetan refugees.

By the beginning of the 60’s, his holiness together with several of Tibetan officials, began their journey to a place that would become one of the most important places for Tibetan refugees as well as the town of his holiness the Dalai Lama. This town in northern India is known as, McLeodGanj (Dharamshala), Himanchal Pradesh.


 Ever since the Dalai Lama escaped Tibet, he has been visiting several nations around the world. In 167, his holiness made his first trip outside India and Tibet, he visited Thailand and Japan. In 1973, his holiness made his first visit to Europe visiting 12 European nations. In the following years he began a series of actions in favoring Tibet.

 Awards Received

Date Award Name Awarded by Country
December 12, 1999


Diwaliben Mohanlal Mehta Award for International Peace & Harmony


Diwaliben Mohanlal Mehta Charitable Trust




November 24, 1999


Life Time Achievement Award


Hadassah Women’s Zionist




October 12, 1999


Boddhi Award


American Buddhist Congress




April 16, 1999


Doctor of Theology


Florida International University




April 9, 1999

April 7, 1999


Doctor Honoris Causa

Doctor Honoris Causa


University of Buenos Aires

University of Brasilla





November 11, 1998


Doctor Honoris Causa


Seton Hill College, Greensburg




May 15, 1998


Doctor of Laws


University of Wisconsin, Madison




May 11, 1998


Doctor of Divinity


Emory University, Atlanta




May 8, 1998


Doctor of Humane Letters


Brandeis University, Boston




May 8, 1998


Juliet Hollister Award


Juliet Hollister Foundation, New York




November 25, 1997


Paulos Mar Gregorious Award


Paulos Mar Gregorious Committee




September 11, 1997


Doctor of International Diplomatic Science


University of Trieste, Trieste




June 1, 1997


Doctor Honoris Causa


Regis university, Denver




May 31, 1997


Doctor Honoris Causa


University of Colorado, Boulder




March 23, 1997

July 26, 1996


Doctor of Honoris Causa

The President’s Medal for Excellence


Chungshan University,Kaohsiung

Indiana University, Bloomington





Plus dozens and dozens more of awards and recognitions comprised from 1957 until 2011. The Dalai Lama has received over 150 awards and recognitions in countless nations around the world. One of the most important awards received by his holiness is the Nobel Prize in 1989.

 Personal Quotes

“With truth and courage as our weapons, we Tibetans would eventually prevail in regaining freedom for Tibet”.

 Dalai Lama.


Bruno Mars Biography

All about the American Singer – Bruno Mars

Born Librarian on 8th October 1985, Bruno Mars found success in his career only in the late 2000’s when he started writing songs for famous artists such as K’Naan’s popular song “Wavin’ Flag” which later became the theme song for Winter Olympics of 2010. After several years of struggle in the industry, Bruno Mars broke out as a singer in the year 2010 for his song “Nothin’ on You.” In the same year he released his debut album entitled Doo-Wops & Hooligans.

Quick Facts:

  • Nick name: Bruno
  • Date of birth: 8th October, 1986
  • Place of birth: Honolulu, Hawaii
  • Origin: Hawaii
  • Profession: Singer and Song-writer
  • Known for: His musical hit song “Nothin’ on You” that was released in the year 2010 and it emerged him as a premiere pop songwriter.
  • Website:

Childhood and growing up years:

Peter Gene Hernandez popularly known by his stage name Bruno Mars was born on 8th of October 1986. He was raised in Waikiki which is situated in the neighborhood of Honolulu of Hawaii. His parents Pete Hernandez was a decent from the Puerto Rican and mother Bernadette known as “Bernie” was a Filipino decent. However, Bruno Mars’ mother emigrated from Hawaii to Philippines when she was a child when her father relocated to an island near Brooklyn in New York. The parents met while they were performing at a show where his mother was a hula dancer and the father was a percussionist. When the singer was two, he was given the nickname “Bruno” by his father because of his much resemblance with the chubby professional wrestler known as Bruno Sammartino. Bruno Mars had five siblings and he was drowned from a musical family in which he was exposed to a diverse genres of music such R&B, hip-hop, rock and reggae. His mother was also a singer apart from being a dancer while his father used his musical skills to perform Rock n Roll music. Mars started working with music from a very young age and his uncle who was an Elvis impersonator took Mars at the age of three he took Mars to accompany him while performing on stage. During these times, he performed songs by popular artists such as The Temptations, Michael Jackson and The Isley Brothers. By the age of four, Bruno Mars was performing for five days per week in the family’s band The Love Notes during which he became famous for his impersonation for Elvis Presley.

After giving a number of performances in number of musical venues in his hometown, Mars decided to pursue a career in music and for this purpose he relocated to Los Angeles and enrolled himself in a musical school. In the year of 1990, Bruno Mars was featured in the MidWeek magazine as “Little Elvis” and had his cameo in the year 1992 in a film “Honeymoon in Vegas”. He later reflected his thoughts on this title and said that he was greatly influenced by Presley and confessed that he was a big fan of Elvis and also the musical background of his family has had a huge impact on him to take up music future profession. In the year of 2003, he graduated from the President Theodore Roosevelt High School and then at the age of 17 he moved to California to take a professional musical course from a reputed institution. When he started giving stage performances, he adopted the nickname given by his father as his stage name and also added “Mars” at the end of it as most girls comment that they are out of this world and he always thought of himself of being from Mars.

Just after his relocation to Los Angeles, he struck a deal with the Motown Records in the year 2004 but it proved to be an unsuccessful stint. Although, the deal went nowhere, the experience he acquired from this recording studio proved beneficial in his long-run musical career when he met the producer and songwriter Philip Lawrence, who also signed him for a label.

Claim to fame:

Lawrence and Bruno Mars along with the engineer Ari Levine began working together and they wrote songs. Soon they formed a production team which was known as The Smeezingtons and in the year 2006, Lawrence introduced Mars to their future manager named Aaron Bay-Schuck, at the Atlantic Records were he heard a few songs of Mars while he played on his guitar, immediately impressed by Mars’ songs he wanted to sign him but then he took three long years for Atlantic Records to strike a deal with Bruno Mars for a label. Meanwhile, Bay-Schuck recruited the Smeezingtons and Mars to produce and also write songs for a number of label artists. Although, Mars ultimate goal was to become a solo artist, he began his musical career by writing and producing for other artists so that it would help him to improve his skills of songwriting and at the same time it would help him to discover his skills and while being able to enhance his skills of an artist on the type of artist that he wanted to be. Bay-Schuck terms this period of Bruno Mars as the time of “self-discovery” as these years played a crucial role in the success of Mars’ future musical career.

By the end of 2000’s, Bruno Mars found his success as he started writing songs for popular artists such as the smash hit “Right Round”, “Billionaire”, “Wavin’ Flag” which was the theme song for the 2010 Winter Olympics. By the same time he was becoming a successful solo artist and he obtained his recognition when he was featured in “Nothin’ on You” for which he also wrote the song. Mars was also seen Travie McCoy’s song which was titled as “Billionaire”. Both these songs reached its peaks and were seen the top ten charts all over the world. After the success of these songs he released his debut play which was entitled as “It’s Better If You Don’t Understand” in the year 2010 on 11th May. This play soon took the 99th position in the Billboard 200 charts and apart from this he also produced a single “The Other Side”. The song features the singer Cee Lo Green and also B.O.B. Bruno Mars once again collaborate with Green in the year of 2010 in August co-writing a single “Fuck You”. At the same time he performed a medley of “Nothin’ on You” and also “Airplanes” along with Hayley Williams and B.O.B at the venue of 2010 MTV Video Awards in the year 2010 on September 2010.


In the year of 2010 on 4th October, Mars debutant album which was known as Doo0Wops & Hooligans was released digitally. At the same time his lead single, “Just the Way you Are” was released on 19th July and this reached its top in the Billboard Hot 100 worldwide. The music video of this album was released on 8th September 2010 and the second single “Grenade” released on 28th September. This song was also a huge success and took its position in the international chart list. In the U.S, the album Doo-Wops & Hooligans stood at the third position in the Billboard 200 in the week of 13th October 2010 and it also saw a great selling in the market as 55,000 copies were sold. There was positive response to album even by the critics and the famous Leah Greenblatt of the Entertainment Weekly greatly praised the music of Bruno Mars and commented on his music as being an “instant-access melodies”. After this, Mars began his success tours on 6th October 2010 and then made a toured to Europe on 18th October, 2010 where the tour was named as Hands All Over.

In the year of 2010, September 19th Mars was arrested by the Las Vegas officials on the charge of cocaine and during his interrogation with one of the police officials, Mars’ confessed that what he had done was foolish of him and that he has never used drugs earlier. He was guilty of felony drug charges and in return of this he was supposed to pay $2000 as fine and 200 hours of community service and also attend a drug counseling session in order to erase the criminal charges against him and promised to remain out of trouble.

The year of 2011, February 13th saw Bruno Mars take his first Grammy Award in the category of Best Male Pop Vocal Performance. He also had six more nominations in various other categories such as the Best Rap, Record of the Year etc. for his songs “Nothin’ on You” and “Fuck You”. In the same year on 16th September he released another single titled “Lighter” which featured Mars in the song. This song had received mixed reviews from fans and also critics but majority of them criticized Bruno Mars for doing such a song. In the same month on 22nd September, he announced on his website about his new song “It Will Rain” which was going to appear in the movie “The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn-Part I”. On 30th October 2011 Bruno Mars gave an exclusive performance in the show “The X-Factor UK” of the Runaway Baby part of the results session. On the same day, Mars was nominated to six other nominations for Grammy Awards.

Bruno Mars is also famous for displaying his variety of musical styles which are influenced by various genres of music. And he is not just limited to one and made his mark in the genre of rock, reggae, R&B, hip-hop and also pop. He generally says that his work is always an inspiration of other artists. Whatever be his genre, he has emerged to be a successful and a popular artist after his lifetime struggle to reach the top in the music industry. Right now, Bruno Mars is just trying to enjoy his good times.

Trade Marks of Bruno Mars:

  • He most often sings in chorus which is generally seen in his rap songs.
  • Has a powerful high voice.

Awards and Nominations Received:

In the year 2011, Bruno Mars won the American Music Awards for the song “Himself” in the category of Pop or Rock Music and was also nominated in the category of Adult Contemporary Music for the same song. In the same year, he also won the ASCAP Award for his song “Nothin’ on You” as the Top Rap Song. Mars won the BT Digital Music Awards in the category of Best International Artist. He also won the Billboard award for his song “Just the way you are” in the category of being the Top Radio Song.

Bruno Mars also has one Grammy Ward to his credit for the song “Just the Way you are” which in won the in year of 2011 in the category of Best Male Pop Vocal Performance. He has also been nominated six times for the same awards in various categories.

Personal Quotes:

“They say lifes a dream, call this in insomnia cuz this ain’t wonderland damn sure ain’t narnia and once you cross the line you can’t change your mind and yeah I’m a monster but I’m no Frankenstein.”

“Everything’s good right now. It’s really paying off because now my songs are on the radio. It took me a while to finally get it, but when I got it, I think I got it right. And I’m very proud of how my songs are representing me as an artist.”

“It’s an old-school rock ‘n’ roll show. I’m holding a guitar and singing the tunes. That’s what you get. People might think I’m up there with a tux and an orchestra, but it’s the exact opposite. I play with a band who are a bunch of pals, we’re having a blast and our goal is to make everyone in the audience feel the same.”

“I’m a music fan and a student, especially with guys that have been doing it for so long; I’d like to just get in the booth and see what happens. I don’t mind people saying Bruno Mars is pop. Pop is awesome – Michael Jackson’s pop, Prince is pop, it just means you have songs that are connecting with a lot of people so call me pop for all I care.”

“Im gonna spend Valentine’s Day looking for my voice… I think I left it at the Grammy pre party. If anyone finds please give it back! THANKS”

Dr Seuss Biography

About the great author and the Illustrator – Dr. Seuss

Born on 2nd of March in the year of 1904, Dr. Seuss is an American poet, writer and also a popular cartoonist. He is most widely recognized for his children’s books that he usually writes under the pen name of Dr. Seuss or Rosetta Stone and also Theo LeSieg. In his lifetime he has published atleast 46 children books that are depicted with imaginative characters and Dr. Seuss is known for using rhymes in his books that usually trisyllabic. His best books include Green Eggs and Ham, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish and also The Cat in the Hat. There are a number of adaptations of his work like for instance there are about eleven television shows and four feature films and also a popular Broadway musical program in his stories. In the year 1958, Dr. Seuss was awarded the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award for his book Horton Hatches the Egg. He also won this award for the second time in the year 1961.

Quick Facts:

  • Nick name: Dr. Seuss
  • Date of birth: 2nd March, 1904
  • Place of birth: Springfield, Massachusetts
  • Origin: United States
  • Profession: Author, Illustrator, Publisher, Cartoonist, artist and an animator.
  • Known for: His books such as The Cat in the Hat and Green Eggs and Ham as these are the best-selling books of this author around the world.
  • Website:

Childhood and growing up years:

Theodor Seuss Geisel popularly known by his pen name Dr. Seuss was born on 2nd of March in the year 1904 in Springfield located in Massachusetts in United States. He was born to the couple Theodor Robert and Henrietta Geisel and his father was the son of a German immigrant and used to look after the family brewery and after a few years supervised it. In the year 1925, Seuss attended the Dartmouth College in which he joined the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and he was also a part of the humor magazine which was known as Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern for which he gradually became a chief editor after gaining experience. During his college education at Dartmouth, Seuss along with nine of his other friends was caught indulging themselves in drinking gin and as a result of this misbehavior he was asked to resign from all extracurricular activities by the Dean of the college, Craven Laycock including the humor magazine. As he was restricted by writing in the Jack-o-Lantern, without the knowledge of the administration, he started writing his works under the pen name “Seuss”. His first work which was signed under this name was published after he was graduated and six months later while he was working on The Jude, his weekly feature Birdies and Beasties was published. It was indeed his rhetoric professor W. Benfield Pressey who encouraged Seuss to start writing as he had big inspirations of writing during his studies at Dartmouth. After graduating from the Dartmouth college, he enrolled himself in the Lincoln College, Oxford where he studied to acquire a Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of English literature. It was at this university that he met his future wife, Helen Palmer to whom he was married to in the year 1927 and then relocated to United States without having earned a degree.

Claim to fame:

By the year of 1925, he started writing funny articles and also illustrations for Liberty, Vanity Fair, Life and also The Judge. It was in the year 1927 on July 16th that The Saturday Evening Post published his first cartoon post under his pen name Seuss and with this he became famous nationally because of his advertisements that he wrote for Flit, which was a common insecticide at that time. The slogan written by him “Quick, Henry, the Flit!” became a popular catchphrase and throughout his works he was greatly supported by his wife. He also drew an advertisement the Great Depression for the General Electric, Standard Oil and also the NBC. In the year of 1935, he drew and wrote a short-live comic strip which was titled as Hejji. In the year 1937 while he was returning from his ocean voyage to Europe, the rhythm of the engine of the ship inspired his poem which he included his first book known as And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. However, this book was rejected twenty-seven times but later on became one of his popular books. This was followed by his three more books that he wrote for children before he left for United States to take part in the World War II.

When the World War II began, Seuss now focused his work political cartooning and he drew over 400 drawings in just a span of two years time as part of his editorial cartoonist post in the left-leaning New York City daily newspaper. These political cartoons were later on published in Dr. Seuss Goes to War that denounced by Hitler and Mussolini. These drawings were greatly criticized for being non-interventional especially by Charles Lindbergh who opposed the US entry into the World War.

One notable cartoon of Seuss is the one that depicts all Japanese Americans as fifth-columnists and at the same time it was deplores racism in the homeland against the Blacks and the Jews which harmed the war. Dr. Seuss cartoons are strongly in favor of President Roosevelt who was taking care of the war while combining the exhortations to contribute to the efforts of the war and also being able to cope with the frequent attacks from the Congress.

In the year 1942, Seuss turned his work to support directly the war efforts of the US and for this purpose he first worked on drawing posters for the War Production Board and also the Treasury Department. Then in the year 1943, he finally joined the Army and served as the Captain and was also the commander in the Animation Department for the United States Army Air Forces. During his job in the army he wrote a number of films few of which are Your Job in Germany which was set in the 1945 era and was based on the propaganda about bringing about peace in the country of Europe after the World War II. Another movie that he wrote was Our Job in Japan and also the Private Snafu which were in series based on the adult training lives in the army. While he was serving the army, Dr. Seuss was awarded with the Legion of Merit. The film that he wrote Our Job in Japan had become the basis for a commercial release film which was titled as Design for Death and was released in the year 1947. The following year, the couple relocated their living to La Jolla which is located in California. He returned back to write books for children and books such as If I Ran the Zoo, If I Ran the Circus and Horton Hears a Who! became hot favorites with children and he also wrote a fantasy and musical film known as The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T which was released in the year 1953. This movie however was a critical one but it had seen a financial failure and after this, Seuss never attempted to write another feature film. In 1950, he published numerous illustrated short stories which were majorly published in the Redbook magazine. A number of them form these volumes have also been reprinted since their original publications for their popularity.

Further, he went on to write a number of children’s books that comprises of both his simplified vocabulary language and also in his elaborate style. The Beginner books wrote by him were not easy and it took him years to complete the books. In the year 1967 on October 23rd after suffering from the illness of cancer coupled by the emotional pain by her husband’s affair with Audrey Stone Diamond, Seuss wife Helen Palmer committed suicide. The following year Seuss married Audrey on June 21st although he devoted most of his time to writing children’s books while he had no children of his own.

Dr. Seuss also known as Geisel died of throat cancer in the year 1991 on September 24th after struggling of poor health for several years in the city of San Diego in California. The body of Seuss was cremated where his ashes were scattered. Four years after the death of this great American author and cartoonist, on December 1st 1995 University Library Building was renamed on Seuss as Geisel Library. This was done in honor and respect of Geisel and his wife Audrey for their generous contributions that they had made towards the library and also their dedication in improving the literacy.


In the year 2002, Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden was opened that comprises of sculptures done by Geisel combined with many of his characters. In the year 2008, the California then President Arnold Schwarzenegger and the first lady Maria Shriver made an announcement that Dr. Seuss would be introduced into the California Hall of Fame which was located in The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts. This induction ceremony took place on 15th December. On March 2nd 2009, the most popular web search engine Google changed its logo temporarily in honor and to mark the birthday of Geisel.

In his entire career, he wrote about 60 books which were published under his well-known pen name Dr. Seuss. He is also known for authoring a dozen books as Rosetta Stone. His books had topped the list of bestsellers and at a time about 222 million copies would be sold. His stories were translated in about fifteen languages. At time she also wrote books for adults by making use of the similar style of pictures and verses. Some of the famous adults written by him were The Seven Lady Godivas and You’re Old only Once! The last book written before his death was Oh, The Places You’ll Go! this became a popular gift for graduating students. His characters and books are also featured in Seuss landing. The most famous Hollywood Reporter has reported that the popular artist Johnny Depp has agreed to produce a film based on Dr. Seuss and might also feature himself in the movie. The film is written by Keith Bunin and would be producing along with Illumination Entertainment which would be distributed by Universal Pictures.

Awards and Nominations Received:

In the year of 1978, Dr. Seuss won the Emmy award for his book The Hoober-Blood Highway in the category of Outstanding Children’s Special. This was his second Emmy award as he won his first Emmy Award in the year of 1982 for his book The Grinch Grinches the Cat in the Hat in the category of Outstanding Animated Program. Then in the year of 2004 he was also awarded with the Start of the Walk of Fame award in the category of Motion Picture.

Dr. Seuss has also been nominated to a number of awards such as the Emmy Awards and the Annie Awards in his careers.

Personal Quotes:

“You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself any direction you choose. You’re on your own. And you know what you know. And YOU are the one who’ll decide where to go…”

“I have heard there are troubles of more than one kind. Some come from ahead and some come from behind. But I’ve bought a big bat. I’m all ready you see. Now my troubles are going to have troubles with me!”

“You’re off to Great Places!

Today is your day!

Your mountain is waiting,

So… get on your way!”

“When beetles fight these battles in a bottle with their paddles and the bottle’s on a poodle and the poodle’s eating noodles…they call this a muddle puddle tweetle poodle beetle noodle
bottle paddle battle.”

“So be sure when you step, Step with care and great tact. And remember that life’s A Great Balancing Act. And will you succeed? Yes! You will, indeed! (98 and ¾ percent guaranteed) Kid, you’ll move mountains.”

Stalin Biography

Iosif Vissarionovich Dzuhgashvili better know as “Joseph Stalin”, is remembered as a member of the Bolsheviks and one of the precursors of the Soviet Union. As a member of the Bolsheviks, Stalin shared similar ideas with contemporaries such as Vladimir Lenin, Trotsky and other revolutionaries that overthrew the Russian monarchy in the famous event known as, the October Revolution. Joseph Stalin was born on December 18th 1878 in Gori, a very small town that belonged to the Russian Empire. Nowadays, the small city of Gori belongs to Georgia, an ex territory of the Soviet Union.

Since his beginnings, as part of the revolutionary movement in Russia, Stalin was criticized by his colleagues that thought that his approach and attitude towards others was rude and extremely inappropriate. Because of this, some of his former colleagues including Lenin and Trotsky were totally against Stalin as part of the communist government. When Lenin died, Stalin became head of the Soviet Union allowing him to literally exterminate the opposition whether was foreign or domestic, a very characteristic approach used by Stalin. At the time that Stalin’s colleagues began to uncovered Stalin’s true nature as a cruel and extremist individual, Stalin simply sent them to the infamous Gulags or Soviet concentration camps as he sent millions of his own fellow country men.

During WWII Stalin was seen by Churchill and Roosevelt as an admirable person whose military efforts helped the Allies win the war in the eastern front against the Nazis. Nevertheless little did they know about Stalin’s regime as a ruthless killer whose actions are only comparable to Hitler’s. Nowadays there are still many people around the world that believe that the Holocaust associated with the Nazi regime killed millions of innocent people, but the truth is that Stalin and his regime are responsible for the deaths of nearly 20 million people. The only difference is that history is written by those who win the war not by those who loose it. Despite these atrocious acts, after WWII the Soviet Union emerged as one of the most powerful economies in the world as well as one of the most powerful nations.

Following WWII, the Soviet Union led by Stalin began expanding its communist ideas throughout the world as well as an arms race for power against the west that will be known as The Cold War, a stage in contemporary history that almost resulted in a nuclear catastrophe due to a period of world dominance.

As the leader of the Soviet Union, Stalin reconstructed the nation which was badly damaged after the war. Also in the year that followed the war, Stalin helped the nation to compete technologically and economically wise against other economic powers such as the U.S. During Stalin’s regime the Soviet Union was the second most important nation economically and technology wise after the U.S.

When Stalin died in 1953, his body was placed next to Lenin’s body in the famous mausoleum located in Moscow’s Red Square, years after however; his body was switched to another place. In current times, there are still many people in Russia that see Stalin as a very capable leader that significantly improved the nation’s economy and the Russian population Modus Vivendi (way of living).

 Quick Facts

Nick name: “Stalin” and “The Man of Steel”.

Born:  December 18th 1878

Place of birth:  Gori, Georgia, former territory of the Soviet Union that became an independent nation after the Soviet Union disappeared

Died: March 5th 1953, in Kuntsevo Dacha, a town located few kilometers away from the Russian capital.

Profession:  Politician, revolutionary, Dictator

Origin: Georgian

Known for: indirectly killing millions and millions of innocent people, taking place in overthrowing the Russian monarchy, leading the Red army to victory against the Nazis in the eastern front, being a totalitarian and ruthless dictator

Childhood and growing years

 The original name given by Stalin by his parents was Iosev Besarionis dze Jughashvili. As a young Georgian kid, Joseph together with all Georgina kids were forced to speak learn and speak Russian. One year prior to his teen years, Joseph suffered an accident that permanently damaged one of his arms (left one) enabling him to perform certain activities.  By age 16 as a result of being a good student, Stalin received a scholarship in an Orthodox academy where he opposed the Orthodox faith and despite his great performance as a student, he didn’t graduate because he got kicked out. The school records revealed that he was expelled due to economic problems; nevertheless official records said that he was expelled because breaking some school rules.

Soon after being kicked out from the Orthodox school, Joseph read Lenin’s ideas about communism that years later led to his affiliation with the Bolsheviks. As part of the Bolsheviks, Joseph was identified by the Russian police as an enemy of the state because of the activities that severely criticized the Imperial government. As a revolutionary he helped to raised money for the party by perpetrating robberies and other unlawful activities.

At age 28 Joseph contracted matrimony with Ekaterina Svanidze the mother of Stalin’s first son, Yakov. Stalin would remain married for only a year before becoming widower when his wife passed away. As a revolutionary Joseph was sent to Siberia several times but also in several occasions he somehow managed to escape. It was during this time in Siberia that Joseph adopted the pseudonym “Stalin”, that literally means in Russian, Steel. When he was sent to Siberia for the 7th time Stalin was drafted in the Russian army to fight the first “Great War”, WWI. His left arm that got damaged when little, enable Stalin to fight in the armed conflict.

After a series of events perpetrated by the Bolsheviks (in which Stalin and other famous Bolsheviks were involved) against the provisional government established by the Czar, the communist party managed to overthrown the provisional government. At the end of the October Revolution, the communist party led by Lenin and other revolutionaries (including Stalin) took control over the Russian government. After the Bolsheviks seized power over the government, there was another political group that opposed the Bolshevik government resulting in uprisings that attempt to snatch the power from them. As civil war broke out in Russia, Lenin sent Stalin to a Russian city to control an uprising where he ordered many people to be killed as well as other brutal acts that Stalin thought it would scared anyone who tried to oppose the Bolshevik government. This was the first time that Stalin showed his “true colors” as a ruthless individual.

 Decisive years
Lenin as the head of the Bolsheviks was getting older and older, and at the same time Stalin, a trusted colleague of Lenin, it was becoming more powerful as the time went by. There were several occasions in which Stalin did not shared the same perspectives as Lenin did, but regardless of the differences between them, Lenin was confident that Stalin would be the right person to substitute him as the communist leader in Russia. In the other hand, Stalin’s relation with other colleagues was getting worse and worse with time, nonetheless Lenin a true believer in Stalin’s ideas, gave him more power in the government. This situation allowed Stalin to give his supporters important positions within the government. By the time Stalin became General Secretary, Lenin’s health had deteriorated considerably allowing Stalin to do everything he wanted with the government. When Lenin realized about Stalin’s ambition, he wrote a letter to members of the congress in which Lenin explained that Stalin should be removed from his charge as soon as possible because his approach towards others and his behavior were not worthy for such position in the government. Unfortunately, this letter never reached its final destination and when Lenin died, Stalin became the head of the Russian government. Right away, Stalin exterminated his enemies or simply sent them to the Gulags in Siberia that pretty much meant certain death.

In the years that followed Stalin’s extermination of his enemies, Joseph began an “espionage network” in some of the most powerful nations around the world. Stalin’s main intention with this approach was to make sure that communist associations outside of the Soviet Union remained loyal to Stalin’s regime. The best example about this network was the assassination of Trotsky in Mexico by the Russian secret police dispatched by Stalin.

As an emblematic behavior among dictators, Stalin began a sort of “Brain Washing” campaign in the Soviet Union. During this time there were several towns and cities that adopted the names of Stalin, Lenin and other important Soviet figures. Also he utilized several titles that referred to him as pretty much the best thing that could have happened to the Russian people. Evidence revealed that Stalin manipulated some aspects in Russian history that would portrait him as a more important figure than he actually was. Simply as other iconic figures of his time, Stalin used the power of persuasion in order to achieve his goals and atrocities. Even nowadays there are Russians that do not see Stalin as murderer, but as a person whose actions made Russia a great nation.

 Stalin the murderer

Stalin was an individual that lacked compassion and remorse. During several years under Stalin’s direct orders several hundreds of thousands of Russians as well as people from other nationalities were killed, tortured, executed or simply sent to the infamous Gulags, which was a synonym of death. In the Gulags people were forced to work for extremely long periods of time with little or no food whatsoever under harsh weather conditions. Is estimated, that a person couldn’t live longer than 2 months in the Gulags due to the infrahuman conditions, extremely hard work and lack of food. Many people are not aware of Stalin’s atrocities not only to his own people but also to several other nationalities including, Germans, Koreans, Poles and even Americans that immigrated to Russia during the Great Depression. Before WWII, Stalin had already killed approximately 700,000 people, sometimes with little or no reason whatsoever. A person could be convicted to death or to be sent to a Gulag in as little as 24 hours. Everybody single Russian could be executed or sent to a concentration camp disregarding their profession, but mainly Gulags were filled with the average Russian citizen, teachers, musicians and peasants. Millions of people were forced to leave their homes simply because their ethnicity wasn’t accepted by Stalin standards. These people were relocated to secluded regions in Soviet Russia. Gulags saw an exorbitant amount of people during Stalin’s regime. Official records revealed that 14 to 20 million people were sent to Soviet concentration camps between 1929 and 1953. In addition, millions more died of famine in consequence of Stalin’s decisions.

Compared to Hitler, the amount of people that died during Stalin’s regime almost double the number of people that were killed in the Holocaust. But the only reason why the people killed by Stalin are not remembered is because the Soviets won the war not the Nazis. If the outcome of the war would’ve been different, it is probable that schools all over the world would teach the atrocities committed by Stalin and his regime that killed way more people than Hitler’s regime did. Unfortunately like Stalin himself said “no one will remember these people”, and indeed there are still a lot of people that are not even aware of this carnage.

Some Stalin supporters argue that during the time of the Soviet leader the nation saw a considerable improvement in the nation’s infrastructure as well as in the nation’s economy. Contrary to this believes the truth is that economic growth in the Soviet Union experienced a greater improvement after Stalin died and without the loss of millions of innocent people. As every bad story has a good side, Stalin also has his good side. People that somehow managed to escape being sent to concentration camps were able to enjoy a pleasant life due to the great quality social services offered by the Soviet government. Men and women received the same exact education; health care was available for everyone free of charge resulting on the increase of the life span of the average Soviet citizen. After WWII there were plenty of jobs available in an industrialized nation that at last was benefiting after years of suffering.

Stalin and WWII

 As the war broke out in Europe, Hitler knew that it was better to have the Soviet Union as a neutral power instead of having it as an enemy. This idea resulted in a non aggression treaty between Germany and the Soviets. Hitler, without thinking in the actual consequences, decided to break this treaty and decided to attack the Soviets. Despite the heavy casualties suffered by the Red Army, the Soviets managed to defeat the Nazis thanks to the harsh Russian winter and the help of the Soviet tank that was being massed produced in Soviet Factories. In 1945, the Red Army occupied the German capital and the Nazis unconditionally surrender.

When the war ended the Soviet Union gained control of every single territory eastwards of Berlin. This delimitation would be later known as, “The Iron Curtain”.

Stalin’s personal life

 Stalin’s first son, Yakov, allegedly committed suicide in 2 occasions as a result of Stalin’s attitude towards him. The first suicide attempt surprisingly failed as Yakov survived after he shot himself because his father extremely bad attitude and bitterness towards him. The second time, Yakov allegedly ran towards an electrified fence in a concentration camp in which he was held prisoner together with other Red Army soldiers. Allegedly ran towards an electrified fence in a concentration camp in which he was held prisoner together with other Red Army soldiers. Yakov fought against the Nazis during the war and captured in battle. The Nazis knew that they have captured Stalin’s son which they believed would be exchanged for a high rank official. When Stalin received the offer for exchanging his son for Friedrich Paulus, he replied. “You have in your concentration camps millions of my sons, release them all. Otherwise all my sons shall remain captive”. Learning about his Father’s respond, Yakov committed suicide.

Stalin remarried years after with Nadezhda Alliluyeva, this marriage produced 2 children, a boy, Vasily and a girl, Svetlana. The boy served in the Soviet air force until he died for alcohol abuse in the 60’s. Svetlana is probably still alive somewhere in the U.S. where she emigrated in 1967. Stalin’s second wife committed suicide after having a sever argument with Stalin. Other sources claim that Stalin murdered her after the argument.

Stalin liked to drink often but without getting intoxicated. As a social drinker, he encouraged his companions to join him whenever he started drinking. As Nikita Khrushchev states, Stalin loved to watch foreign movies, specially those from the U.S. that involved “Cowboys and Indians”. The main purpose of this stalin biography is to inform the people about the facts of atrocities committed by this famous figure, whose regime caused misery, suffering and countless deaths. Most people think of Stalin simply as a communist who participated in WWII, but since little is know about his atrocities he is not seen as “The Antichrist” as Hitler is. The truth is that Stalin directly or indirectly is responsible for a number of victims that nearly doubled those associated with Hitler. “Knowledge is the only way to avoid repeating such atrocities in history”.

Marie Curie Biography

About Madam Marie Curie:

Born on 7th November 1867, in Warsaw located in Russia Madam Marie Curie was the pioneer in the research of radioactivity and the credit of coining the term goes to her. She was also the first person to be awarded with two Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry respectively. Her achievements do not end here as it also includes her theory on radioactivity and the techniques that she used for isolating radioactive isotopes and also the two main elements known as radium and polonium. Marie Curie was the first woman to be titled with her merits in the city of Pantheon which is situated in Paris. In the year 1898, she first named with chemical element which she discovered after her native country, Polonium. She was also the first woman to be professor at the University of Paris.

Quick Facts:

  • Date of birth: 7th November, 1867
  • Place of birth: Warsaw, Russia
  • Origin: Russia
  • Profession: Professor, Scientist
  • Known for: Discovery of two chemical elements and her research in radioactivity
  • Website:

Childhood and growing up years:

Madame Marie Curie was born on 7th November 1867 in Warsaw which is located in the partition of Russia of Poland. She was the youngest and the fifth child of the well-known couple teachers of W?adys?aw Sk?odowski and Bronis?awa. Her father, W?adys?aw Sk?odowski taught physics and mathematics the subjects that Marie wanted to pursue. Apart from being a teacher, he was also the director of two popular Warsaw gymnasia which was exclusively for boys in addition to acting as a lodge for boys in the house of the family while Marie’s mother was employed in a prestigious Warsaw boarding school which was meant for girls. However, Marie Curie lost her mother at the age of twelve as she died of tuberculosis. Madam Marie Curie’s father was an atheist while her mother was a devout Catholic. The death of her mother and her little sister caused Maria to give up on her Catholicism classes and become an agnostic.

At the age of ten, Maria Curie was enrolled in a boarding school where her mother was employed and then later on attended the gymnasium for girls from where she graduated in the year 1883 on 12th June. And the following year she spent in the countryside amidst her father’s relatives and then the next year with her father in the village of Warsaw where she indulged herself in some tutoring. As her parents financial status was not in a good shape as the family had lost their fortunes because of patriotic involvements. The upbringing and studies of the children became difficult. Then, Maria made an agreement with the sister that she would provide her with financial assistance for her medical studies in Paris in return for similar assistance two years later. For this purpose, Marie took up a job as a governess with a lawyer’s family in Krakow and two years later she was a governess for a Ciechanow family, who were indeed her relatives. When she was working with the latter family, Maria fell in love with their son known as Kazimierz ?orawski and he was reciprocated by this future mathematician. However, his parents rejected the proposal of marrying the penniless Maria and Kazimierz was unable to cope with his love and was not able to oppose his parents. Consequently, Maria lost the position of being a governess in the family and she found another employment as a governess in the Fuchs family who lived on the Baltic Sea coast, in whose house she spent a year while providing financial assistance to her sister.

By the year 1890, Maria Curie was married to Kazimierz and a few months later, she was invited by her sister to join her in Paris. Unfortunately, Maria had to decline this offer as she could not afford the tuition fee of the university. She then returned back to her father who was still living in Warsaw and stayed with him till the fall of 1891. During this time, she tutored and also studied at the Floating University. Apart from this, at the same time she also began with her practical scientific training from a laboratory which was located in the Museum of Industry and Agriculture located close to the Warsaw’s Old Town. In the year of 1891 October, she received a letter from ?orawski in which he wrote about breaking his relation with her and at the same time, her sister was insisting her to come to France so in the same year she left to France. The loss of the relation was a tragic for both Maria and also ?orawski. In Paris, Maria Curie took shelter at her sister and brother-in-law’s after later she rented out a primitive garret and proceeded with her studies of mathematics, physics and chemistry at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). She studied during the day and tutored in the evening. Her earning barely sufficient for her and in the year of 1893, she was awarded with a degree in the field of physics from where she began her work in the industrial laboratories of Lippman’s.  In the meantime, she continued her studies from Sorbonne and in 1894 she earned her degree in the field of mathematics. It was during this time that she met Pierre Curie who was her instructor at the School of Physics and Chemistry. Further, she also started her scientific career in Paris by working on an investigation case about the magnetic properties of various steels and brought about her interest for magnetism and at the same time drew Marie and Pierre together. She departed from Paris to Warsaw for her summer vacation, and this distance only enhanced the feelings for each other. She had plans of returning to Poland and study in their field of interest and it was then that she was denied with the chance of entering into the Krakow University just because she was a woman and so she returned back to Paris. A year later, in the year of 1895 in month of June, Pierre Currie and Maria got married while Maria became Maria Currie and after this the two physicists hardly left their laboratory. The couple shared similar hobbies, went on long bicycle rides and made trips to abroad. All this brought them closer to each other and Maria had finally found a new partner and also a scientific collaborator in whom she could depend.

Claim to fame:

In the year 1896, following the discovery of Henri Becquerel who discovered a new phenomenon where he demonstrated that the radiation did not depend on any external source of energy but it seemed to have aroused spontaneously from the element uranium. Curie who was looking up for a thesis subject during the same time decided to study the uranium rays and take this field of research as a possible thesis topic. Making use of a clever technique, she first investigated the samples and using the electrometer which was invented by her husband and his brother fifteen years ago, she discovered the uranium rays which were caused by air samples that conduct electricity. By making use of this technique, her first observation was on finding that the activity of uranium depends on the quantity of the uranium present in the component. She also showed that the radiation was not on the outcome but on the interaction of certain molecules that comes out from the atom. However, this was the one of the most significant piece of development that was conducted in the field of science. Her systematic studies included the study of two uranium minerals such as the torbernite and the pitchblende. Pierre Curie also joined her at work that she had taken up to resolve the problem and this led to the discovery of new elements such as the radium and the polonium. Pierre Curie devoted his entire time to study the physical structure of the new radiations while Marie Curie was involved to obtain the pure form of radium in its metallic state and she achieved this with the help from the chemist Andre Louis Debierne, who was one of Pierre Curie’s pupils. In 1898 in July, Marie Curie along with her husband published in the paper that announced the existence of an element which they termed as polonium in the honor of their native land “Poland”. In the same year on 26th December, the couple made another announcement of the existence of a second element which they termed as “radium” because of its intense radioactivity. They also took the struggle to separate radium through differential crystallization and in the year 1906, she isolated the pure radium metal. In honor of her results, she was given the doctorate in science on June 1903 while Pierre was awarded with the Davy Medal of the Royal Society. In the year of 1903, they shared the Nobel Prize with Becquerel who was first person to invent the process of radioactivity.

Marie Curie had two daughters, Irne and Ve respectively in the year 1897 and 1904. However, the birth of her two daughters did not disturb her intense scientific studies and she was also appointed as a lecturer for Physics at the cole Normale Superieure which was for girls in Svres. It was here that she was introduced to the method of teaching that was based on experimental demonstrations. In the year 1904, in December she was appointed as the chief assistant for the laboratory which was directed by Pierre Curie.

In 1906, on 19th April, Pierre died in a street accident while he was walking across the Rue Dauphine in the heavy rain. He was struck by a horse-vehicle and fell under its wheels where his skull got fractured. Although, it had also been speculated that he was previously weakened by continuous exposure to radiation but however there were no indication that this contributed to his accident. This sudden death of her husband had a bitter blow on Marie Curie and she was devasted by the loss of his life. But however, this turned to be as a decisive point in her successful career and thereafter she devoted all her time and energy to complete alone the scientific work that she and her husband had undertaken. In the year of 1906, on 13th of May she was the physics department of the Sorbonne decided that she would retain the chair which was earlier designed for Pierre curie and this position was thus entrusted to Marie Curie as they believed that she had the ability to do justice to the position and so they handed over entire authority of the laboratory to her. With this Marie Curie had become the first woman to teach at Sorbonne and this allowed her to rise from the shadows of Pierre and this exhausting work schedule gave her a new meaning for her life. In the year 1908, she became the titular professor and in 1910, she got her research n radioactivity published. Her recognition grew to heights by now and in the year 1911, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded her with her second Nobel Prize and this time she had been honored for her work in the field of Chemistry as she isolated the pure radium. A group of Polish delegates, headed by a world-famous novelist Henry Sienkiewicz, encouraged her to come back to Poland in order to continue her research in her native country. In the year of 1914, she completed the building of laboratories at the Radium Institute which was known as Institut du Radium located at the University of Paris and this Institute conducted research in field of medicine, chemistry and also physics.

Marie Curie played a significant role during the World War I, with the help of her elder daughter who also devoted her time for the development of the use of X-Radiography. Curie encouraged people to use mobile radiography which were popularly known as “petites Curies” and this could used to treat the wounds of the soldiers. Marie Curie supplied these tubes of radium that was derived from materials that she purified. After the war had begun, she also donated her gold Nobel medals that both her husband and she had been awarded to the efforts of the war. She was an active member in the Committees of Polish Polonia which was dedicated to the Polish cause situated in France.  By 1918, Marie Curie was at the highest point of success on her life and in the year of 1922 she also became a member at the Academy of Medicine which supported her research studies of radioactive substances and also the medical applications of these substances.

In the year 1921, along with her two daughters, Marie Curie made a glorious journey to the United States in order to raise funds for her research on the subject of radium. After her interview with Mrs. William Brown Meloney, she announced to buy one gram of radium and also helped Curie in publicizing the trip. As part of this journey she also met the then President Warren G. Harding who received her at the White House. She made her second American tour in the year 1929 after she succeeded in equipping the Warsaw Radium Institute which was founded in the year 1925 accompanied by her sister Bronis?awa who was the director of the Institute. She also gave lecturers by touring the countries of Spain, Belgium, Brazil and Czechoslovakia. All these tours were distractions from her scientific studies as the attendant publicity caused her much distress but however, it provided her with ample resources that war required for her work. She was also made a member of the International Commission on Intellectual Co-operation by the Council of the League of Nations. Apart from this she also had the satisfaction of watching the developments as part of the Curie Foundation which was established in Paris and was inaugurated in the year of in the year of 1932 in Warsaw. In the later years, she visited the Curie Pavilion which was a radioactivity laboratory that was created for her by the Pasteur Institute along with the efforts of the University of Paris. This was one among her four major radio-activity research laboratories.


Her work had paved way for further discoveries like for instance the discovery of neutron by Sir James Chadwick and also the discovery of artificial radioactivity in the year 1934 by Irne and Frederic Joliot Curie. A few month after this discovery, Madame Marie Curie visited Poland for the last spring in her life in the year 1934 cause in 4th July, 1934 she dies in the eastern part of France as a result of leukemia which she had contracted from her long-term exposure to the radiations of radium and various other substances. The negative effects of these ionizing radiation elements were not known by then and Marie Curie would often carry out her experiments and other work in a shed which did not have proper safety measure. Also, she would carry test tubes that would consist of radioactive isotopes in her pants and also stored them in her desk drawer. All these would give out harmful radiations in the dark. All this was the cause of her death and she was buried at the cemetery in Sceaux where she lies just beside her husband. Sixty years after her death, in the year of 1995 the remains of the couple was transferred to Pantheon located in Paris as a respect of their achievements. By this act, she became the only woman so far to be buried in the Pantheon and her laboratory is preserved at the Musee Curie.

Madame Marie Curie’s contribution to Physics is immense and the importance of her work has been marked by her two Nobel Prizes and her influence has been on generations to come. Marie Curie has been a famous icon as a nuclear physicist and also a chemist. Along with the efforts of Irne Joliot-Curie she wrote an entry on the subject of radium in the 13th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica which was published in the year 1926.

Awards and Nominations Received:

The most notable award received by Madame Marie Curie is the Nobel Prize as she was the first woman to achieve the Nobel Prize and also the first person to have won two Nobel Prizes. The first Nobel Prize was given to her in the year 1903 for her contribution in the field of Physics and the second was honored to her in the year 1911 for her contribution in Chemistry.

In the year 1904, she was awarded with the Davy Medal.

Marie Curie has also been given the Matteucci Medal in the year 1904. In the year of 1909, she received the Elliot Cresson Medal and the Franklin Medal of the American Philosophical Society in the year 1921.

Personal Quotes:

“Life is not easy for any of us. But what of that? We must have perseverance and above all, confidence in ourselves. We must believe that we are gifted for something and that this thing must be attained.”

“Humanity needs practical men, who get the most out of their work, and, without forgetting the general good, safeguard their own interests. But humanity also needs dreamers, for whom the disinterested development of an enterprise is so captivating that it becomes impossible for them to devote their care to their own material profit. Without doubt, these dreamers do not deserve wealth, because they do not desire it. Even so, a well-organized society should assure to such workers the efficient means of accomplishing their task, in a life freed from material care and freely consecrated to research.”

“You cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals. To that end each of us must work for his own improvement and at the same time share a general responsibility for all humanity, our particular duty being to aid those to whom we think we can be most useful.”

“We must not forget that when radium was discovered no one knew that it would prove useful in hospitals. The work was one of pure science. And this is a proof that scientific work must not be considered from the point of view of the direct usefulness of it. It must be done for itself, for the beauty of science, and then there is always the chance that a scientific discovery may become like the radium a benefit for humanity.”

Shakira Biography

Shakira is a world renown singer and song writer who became famous on a global scale in the year 2001 for her first English single “Whenever, Wherever”.

Quick Facts

Nickname: Shaki

Date of Birth: 2nd February, 1977

Place of Birth:  Barranquilla, Colombia

Origin: Columbian

Profession: Singer, Musician, Dancer, Song Writer, Record Producer, Philanthropist

Known for: Singer


Childhood and Growing Years

Shakira was born Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll to father William Mebarak Chadid and mother Nidia Ripoll. She is their only child, but is the youngest of eight half- siblings from her father’s previous marriage. Her half-brother died in a freak motorcycle accident when she was just two years old, and this inspired her to write a song at age eight titled Tus Gafas Oscuras (Your Dark Glasses) as her father wore dark glasses for years to hide his grief at his son’s death.

She spent most of her childhood years in Barranquilla, Colombia; and her interest in music started at a very early age. She finished writing her first poem at the very young age of four. She titled it “La Rosa De Cristal”, which means “The Crystal Rose”. She was always fascinated by her father’s typewriter as a child, and it was the first gift she ever asked for, that she wanted a typewriter for Christmas. Her father presented it to her when she was seven years old, and she kept writing poetry which gradually turned into song writing. Her first experience with the doumbek (a traditional drum instrument which typically is an accompaniment of belly dancing) was when she was just four years old, when her father took her to a local diner. She started dancing to those beats, and even then she knew that she would become a performer someday.

She was enrolled in a traditional Catholic school, and loved singing for her teachers and friends, but she was rejected from the choir in her school as her music teacher felt that she had too strong a voice. Her belly dancing skills were quite well-known in her school, and she would often perform for an audience at the school every week. She also loved to swim and play tennis.

Her father declared bankruptcy when she was eight, and she was sent to live with her relatives in LA for a while. She was totally taken by surprise to find on her return, that most of their possessions had been sold, and was taking it badly, until her dad took her to visit a few slum orphans in the neighboring area to show her that things were not as bad for her as she thought they were. She was very moved by their plight, and vowed to herself that she would help them when she became famous one day.( and stayed true to her word) From when she was ten years, for the next 3 years, she was invited to perform at numerous events in her local city, and she gained some recognition in her home town. It was around this time that she got to know Monica Ariza, who was a local producer of theater, and who was so impressed with her that she tried to help further Shakira’s burgeoning career.

Claim to Fame

Monica Ariza helped Shakira secure a deal with Sony Music, Columbia, and she recorded her first music album, Magia, when she was thirteen. It was a collection of songs that she had written and composed since the age of eight. This did well on local radio stations, and brought her some local recognition, but did not do well commercially due to improper recording and production mix, and sold just a little over 1200 copies worldwide.

In 1992, she recorded Peligro, her second studio album, and it was received better than her first album, but she was unhappy with the way it was produced, and her refusal to advertise this album made it another commercial failure for her. Both these albums were later pulled from release, and were just considered as promotional albums rather than official studio albums.

She then decided to take a break from music for a while so that she could finish high school education.
From 1995 to 2001, she recorded two official studio albums with Sony Music, both in Latin. Pies Descalzos in 1995, and Dónde Están Los Ladrones? in 1998. Both these albums were huge commercial successes, and brought her global recognition and put her on the global map. She started doing world tours for these albums, and her fan base expanded almost exponentially.
After her success with these albums, she worked for over an year to release an English album. Her first English single “Whenever, Wherever” was a huge international success and it was the #1 single in most countries. It was after this that she became a true celebrity, with people all over the world grooving to her hit single. This was a part of her third studio album, Laundry Service, which had other notable hit songs like “Objection (Tango)” and “Underneath your Clothes”. Her album became the best selling album of the year 2002.
She spent a year promoting this album and did her first worldwide tour after this album.

She released her next album “Fijación Oral Vol. 1” in 2005, which was a huge hit, especially her hit single from the album, “La tortura” won her many awards. Her next bilingual album, “Oral Fixation Vol.2”. Even though the second volume was not a huge international success, it spawned another single called “Hips Don’t lie” which featured Wyclef Jean. Her unforgettable 2006 single “Hips Don’t Lie” was the largest selling single of the 21st century, and held the #1 spot in 55 countries.

She released her sixth studio album “She Wolf”, in the October of 2009.

Awards and Nominations

She has been touted as one of the best Latin performers in the world after her debut in the 90’s. Her albums have sold over 75 million copies worldwide. She has won 8 Latin Grammy Awards and 2 English Grammy Awards.

She won 19 awards in 2002 from 31 nominations, which included Best Music Video at the Latin Grammy Awards for her music video of “Suerte”. She won four awards out of eleven nominations in 2003, including a  World Music Award for the Best Selling Latin Female Artist and an Echo Award for Best International Female Artist.

In 2005, Shakira won 16 awards including Best Female Artist at the 2005 MTV Europe Music Awards and also won 3 Billboard Music Awards.

In 2006, she was nominated for 50 awards and won 32 of them, including Grammy Awards for Best Latin Rock and Alternative Album, American Music Awards for Favorite Latin Artist, four Latin Grammy Awards including Song of the Year and Record of the Year all for her album “La Tortura”. That album also won her the Album of the Year and Best Pop Vocal Album for the Latin Version of her album Oral Fixation. She won six Latin Billboard Music Awards for her album “La Tortura” for Latin Ringtone of the Year.

In 2009, at the 51st Bambi Awards, she was awarded the Best International Pop Artist of the Year for “She Wolf”. Also the Latin version of her 2005 album “Oral Fixation” won the Billboard Music Award for the Latin Pop Album of the Decade.

In 2010, she won the title of World’s Best Selling Latin American artist for the year 2010 at the World Music Awards.

All in all, she has been the recipient of 278 awards out of the total 309 times she has been nominated.

Personal Quotes

“I am trying to make my accent so it won’t bother anyone, but I am not going to drive myself crazy trying to pretend I am an American girl when I am from Colombia.”

“It doesn’t bother me to talk about my private life, it doesn’t bother me to talk about anything. My life is like a glass of water, transparent.”

“Writing in English was a major challenge. I didn’t want other songwriters to write for me. I wanted to preserve the spirit of my songs in Spanish. I am the same Shakira in English as I am in Spanish.”

“My team and I have reunited two elements that coexist with difficulty: respect and affection, because when they love you they don’t respect you and when they respect you they don’t love you.”

“In this life, to earn your place you have to fight for it.”

“I always believed that women have rights and that there are some women that are intelligent enough to claim those rights. There are some others that are stupid enough not to.”

Robert Frost Biography

Robert Frost was a famous American poet and playwright, well known for his mastery over colloquial American language and the realistic portrayal of rural life in his poems. He is arguably one of the most popular poets of the early 20th century.

Quick Facts

Nickname: Frosty, Bob

Date of Birth: 26th March, 1874

Place of Birth:  San Francisco, California

Origin: Scottish-English

Profession: Poet, Playwright

Known for: Poet


Childhood and Growing Years

Robert Lee Frost was born in the year 1874 to father William Prescott Frost (Jr.) who was a journalist, and mother Isabelle Moodie. His father was English, and his mother was of Scottish descent. His father died due to tuberculosis when he was just around eleven, post which his family moved to Massachusetts to live with his paternal grandparents. He graduated in 1892 from Lawrence High School in Massachusetts.

He grew up in the city, and after graduating high school, he attended Dartmouth University for a few months. For the next decade, he worked various odd jobs including factory jobs and delivering newspapers, all the while continuing to write poetry.

He was able to sell his first poem in 1894, called “My Butterfly: An Elegy”. He got fifteen dollars for it, and was very happy about his achievement. He then proposed marriage to Elinor White, but she wanted to finish her college degree before saying yes. After she graduated, they were married in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1895.

He attended Harvard University for studying Liberal Arts there for two years (1897-1899), but it proved difficult to support his family and study at the same time, and his health was taking a turn for the worse, too. So he voluntarily left Harvard without finishing his degree.

He and Elinor then moved to a farm that his grandfather had bought for them, in New Hampshire. And this is where he worked for nine years, all the while never giving up on his writing. His attempt at farming was not too successful, and he was unhappy leading that life, so he moved back to the education sector, landing a job as an English teacher at the Pinkerton Academy in New Hampshire for five years. (1906-1911). He had 6 children with Elinor by this time, and two of them had died at a very early age, leaving him with just 4 children.

Claim to Fame

In 1912, Robert Frost had almost given up on finding a publisher for his poems; as he was almost 40 by then and only very few of his poems had been published by then. In August 1912, he sold the farm, and decided to start a new life with the proceeds in London, to try his hand one last time to get his poems published. The people in London were more receptive to his poetry, and he found quite a few takers. He made an acquaintance with Ezra Pound, who was a fellow American poet, and who introduced him to many people in the literary field and helped him get a few of his works published in magazines.

His first publication was A Boy’s Will in the year 1913,and it was well received and appreciated by readers and critics alike. Though it was written in traditional nineteenth-century language, the tone was informal and simple and something everyone could relate to. The success of A Boy’s Will cleared the way for his next publication North of Boston, which was published in 1914. This was mainly made up of blank verse, and catchy monologues and dramatic narratives which captivated the readers. He created a niche for himself with these two works, showing his prowess in lyrics as well as narrative.

He returned to the U.S with his family in 1915, and by then he and his poems were internationally known. He was not used to the limelight that his sudden fame brought to him, and he withdrew from the public eye for a few months on a farm in New Hampshire. But he couldn’t hide forever, and financial requirements took precedence over his shy demeanor and he started to accept requests for readings and lectures.

He taught for many years thereafter, accepting a residential teaching position fellowship at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he taught until 1927.

For nearly 40 years (1921- 1963), he taught at the Bread Loaf School of English in Middlebury College in its Vermont Campus. He did a reading of his famous poem “The Gift Outright” at the presidential inaugural ceremony of John F. Kennedy when he was 86 years old. This was a first in American History.

He died on 26th January, 1963 in Boston. He was 88, and died of complications from a prostate surgery. He is currently buried in Bennington, Vermont at the Old Bennington Cemetery. His gravestone reads “I had a lover’s quarrel with the world.”

Awards and Nominations

He won four Pulitzer Prizes for volumes of his poems; in 1924, 1931, 1937 and 1943 for his collections; New Hampshire: A Poem With Notes and Grace Notes, Collected Poems, A Further Range and A Witness Tree.

He was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal in the year 1962 by President Kennedy.

He received an honorary degree from Harvard in 1965. He also received honorary degrees from Cambridge, Oxford and Bates Universities. He was also the first person to ever get two honorary degrees from Dartmouth.

Personal Quotes

“A diplomat is a man who always remembers a woman’s birthday but never remembers her age.”

“A civilized society is one which tolerates eccentricity to the point of doubtful sanity.”

“Always fall in with what you’re asked to accept. Take what is given, and make it over your way. My aim in life has always been to hold my own with whatever’s going. Not against: with.”

“By working faithfully eight hours a day you may eventually get to be boss and work twelve hours a day.”

“Education doesn’t change life much. It just lifts trouble to a higher plane of regard.”

“Forgive me my nonsense, as I also forgive the nonsense of those that think they talk sense.”

“I have never started a poem yet whose end I knew. Writing a poem is discovering.”

“I hold it to be the inalienable right of anybody to go to hell in his own way.”

“Good fences make good neighbours.”

“You’ve got to love what’s lovable, and hate what’s hateable. It takes brains to see the difference.”

Charlie Sheen Biography

Drugs and alcohol and his ‘bad boy’ image have brought him as much fame as his exemplary acting skills and comic timing. Charlie Sheen has been the atypical person that ‘everyone loves to hate’ in the industry. His flamboyant quotes and don’t-care attitude has always fascinated the media, and he’s been in the news for various reasons almost throughout his acting career.

Quick Facts

Nickname: The Machine, Afro Sheen, Chuckles, Good Time Charlie

Date of Birth: 3rd September, 1965

Place of Birth:  New York

Origin: Galician and Irish

Profession: Actor

Known for: Famous Actor


Childhood and Growing Years

Charlie Sheen was born Carlos Irwin Estévez to father Martin Sheen, who was a struggling actor, and mother Janet Sheen, who was an art student from New York. His father was just starting to make a niche for himself on the Broadway scene. Charlie almost didn’t make it past childbirth, and his parents were so grateful to the doctor, who saved him, that he was named ‘Irwin’ after the doctor. He was the third child, in a family of four. He has two older brothers, and one younger sister, all of whom are actors. It is unsurprising since he was from a family who supported the liberal arts. His family moved to Malibu, California due to a successful turn of his father’s acting career after the Broadway show The Subject Was Roses.

Acting interested him at an early age, and he first appeared in a movie in 1974 at age nine, in a small part in his father’s movie The Execution of Private Slovik. He attended the Santa Monica High School in California, where his major interests were acting and baseball. He pursued both these with passion, being a star pitcher for his school’s baseball team, and making Super-8 amateur films with his school buddies (and now famous actors) Rob Lowe and Sean Penn, and his brother. He was expelled from school just a few weeks before graduation, due to low attendance and bad grades. He then decided to pursue an acting career full-time, and adopted the stage name Charlie Sheen, with which he is [in]famous to this day.

Claim to Fame

He began his acting career in 1984 with a small role in the film Red Dawn, with Patrick Swayze and Jennifer Grey. His next movie was also a small scene with Grey, in the 1986 movie Ferris Bueller’s Day Off. His first major break in Hollywood was with the 1986 war movie Platoon, in which he played a Vietnam War veteran. This put Charlie on the Hollywood radar, after which he started getting major parts in movies.

From 1987 to 1990, he starred in many films, like Grizzly II : The Predator, the baseball film Eight Men Out, the award-winning 1988 film Young Guns and Men at Work in 1990.

In the 90’s, his personal (and professional) life took a turn for the worse, his reputation as a hard partier and compulsive womanizer preceded his acting skills, and most of his films of this time bombed. He was in and out of drug rehab, and was arrested many times during this time.

In 1997, he experimented with writing, and wrote his own screenplay for a documentary about life on Mars, called Discovery Mars. In 1998, he produced, and starred in the movie No Code of Conduct.

He then appeared in a slew of spoof/comedy movies like the series Hot Shots! ,and in Scary Movie 3 and Scary Movie 4. He played himself in the widely acclaimed movie Being John Malkovich in 1999.

In 2000, he made his debut on the silver screen with the TV Series Spin City. He was nominated for a few awards for his role in this series. This show ended in 2002.

It was in 2003 that Charlie signed up with CBS for the sitcom Two and a Half Men, which was very well received, and breathed life into his dying career. This show went on to become wildly popular and he went on to star in the show for seven seasons, until 2010, after which he was fired from the show for his behavior and exceptionally high compensation expectations from the makers of the show.


He is trying to get his life straightened out and maintain sobriety after being fired from Two and a Half Men. He currently lives in Los Angeles, California and is frequently visited by his 5 children from 3 marriages (to Donna Keele, Denise Richards and Brooke Mueller). He has sworn off the institution of marriage, citing that he believes in numbers, and after being 0-3, it’s just probably “not for me”.

Awards and Nominations

He has been nominated for, and won many awards since his career took off in 1980. His first nomination was for the Bronze Wrangler award for the Best Motion Picture for his film Young Guns (1988), which he won. He was awarded his own star on the Hollywood Boulevard in 1994. He also won a Golden Globe for his performance in a lead role in the TV Series Spin City in 1996.

Since then he has been nominated for 2 Golden Globe awards, 3 Emmy Awards and 2 Screen Actors Guild awards, and all of these were for his role in the wildly popular TV Show Two and a Half Men from 2003 to 2010.

Personal Quotes

“As kids we’re not taught how to deal with success; we’re taught how to deal with failure. If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again. If at first you succeed, then what?”

“I still don’t have all the answers. I’m more interested in what I can do next than what I did last.”

“I think what drove me insane for a long time is feeling like I hadn’t earned most of what I achieved because it came so fast.”

“I’ve got volumes on how not to behave. I’ve got more information now than a guy should have at my age.”

“Uncertainty is a sign of humility, and humility is just the ability or the willingness to learn.”